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What factors would you (or perhaps do psychologists) take in essays 1997). Although simple, it presents difficulties. Practice produces different amounts of improvements in retest scores of different individuals. Moreover, if the time between retests is quite short, test takers may remember their former responses (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). The trait that is measured may change between tests if time span is long. In addition, the test-retest method may be time consuming and costly (Murphy & Davidshofer, 1998). Split-Half reliability involves administering a test which is split in half to a group of individuals. The scores on the two halves are correlated and this estimates the reliability. Reliability can be estimated without administering two different tests or administering the same test twice. Carry-over effects and the effects of changes over time are reduced. One way of splitting the test how to write an essay samples Caterham School to adopt an add-even split so that the two halves would be similar in their content and in terms of the likely state of the respondent. As there are many ways a test could be split, there is no guarantee that the reliability coefficient obtained from a particular split would be the most homework help united states map drawing (Murphy & Davidshofer, 1998). Reliability is essential but not a sufficient condition for validity. A measuring instrument can not be valid without being reliable (Aiken, 1997). The validity of a test measure what it claims accurately (Anastasi & University of phoenix stadium food options, 1997). Traits like happiness are called constructs. A construct cannot be directly observed but can be gathered from observable behaviors. Construct validation is to determine whether test scores provide a good measure of a specific construct. The process provides a definition of the construct in terms of observable behaviors. A test shows high level of construct validity if actual correlation between test scores and behavior measures are similar to that expected. We have higher .